Western District of Kentucky Federal Court

The Western District of Kentucky encompasses a large swath of the western half of the state. It stretches from the Ohio River and borders with Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio in the north to the Tennessee border in the south. The district handles federal cases arising in 48 counties including the major population centers of Louisville and Bowling Green. With a long history dating back to the early 19th century, the Western District of Kentucky has played an important role in the Commonwealth’s legal affairs.

History of the Western District of Kentucky

The Western District of Kentucky was originally established on February 13, 1801 as one of the first three federal judicial districts in the newly admitted state of Kentucky. The district initially covered the entire western half of Kentucky from the Green River to the Mississippi River. As the population grew, the district was later divided with the creation of the Eastern District of Kentucky in 1863 during the Civil War.

Some key milestones in the history of the Western District of Kentucky court include:

  • 1845 – A new division consisting of 15 new counties was added to the district.
  • 1901 – The United States Court and Customhouse opened in Louisville as a dedicated courthouse for the district.
  • 1961 – The district was reorganized from one division into five divisions, including the Louisville, Bowling Green, Owensboro, Paducah, and Jefferson County divisions.
  • 2002 – The new Gene Snyder U.S. Courthouse opened in Louisville, replacing the previous 1901 courthouse.

Over its 200+ year history, the Western District has handled many prominent cases that have shaped Kentucky law. The court has also undergone changes in size, structure, facilities, and personnel as the population and legal needs have evolved over time. But throughout its long history, the Western District has maintained its critical role in delivering justice in the western half of the Commonwealth.

Jurisdiction and Caseloads

The Western District of Kentucky has jurisdiction over all federal cases that arise in its geographical area encompassing 48 counties. This includes both criminal and civil matters.

On the criminal side, the Western District handles cases involving violations of federal law including crimes related to drugs, fraud, terrorism, public corruption, firearms, and more. Grand juries indict individuals and companies who are then prosecuted in the district court. There is also a federal probation office that works with offenders.

For civil cases, the district court handles lawsuits between citizens of different states involving claims over $75,000 in value. This includes cases related to federal laws and regulations in areas like employment, housing, civil rights, patents and copyrights, bankruptcy, maritime law, and more. The court also reviews decisions of federal administrative agencies.

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Cases are assigned to district judges randomly regardless of which specific division the case arises from. There are magistrate judges who handle preliminary criminal matters and some civil case procedures and motions. Appeals from the district court are heard by the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals.

The Western District of Kentucky handles around 3,000 new case filings each year. The majority are civil cases, but the court also sees close to 200 new criminal case filings annually. The largest numbers of federal civil cases arise from the heavily populated Jefferson County-Louisville metro division.

Geography of the Western District of Kentucky

The Western District of Kentucky extends across a wide swath of the western half of the Commonwealth of Kentucky from the Ohio River south to the Tennessee border.

The district is geographically composed of five divisions:

  • Western Division – Comprised of 27 westernmost counties bordering the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers including McCracken, Ballard and Hickman counties. The division covers the Jackson Purchase region and the Paducah area.
  • Owensboro Division – Made up of 9 counties in the midwest section with Owensboro and Hancock County at its core.
  • Bowling Green Division – Encompassing 8 south central Kentucky counties with its nexus in Warren County and Bowling Green.
  • Louisville Division – Covering just Jefferson County which is congruent with the boundaries of Louisville Metro. This division generates the bulk of the court’s caseload.
  • Covington Division – Consisting of 4 northern counties abutting Ohio and Indiana centered around Kenton County and the city of Covington.

In total the district spans around 15,000 square miles covering a range of communities, populations, and landscapes in the western half of Kentucky. The Ohio River valley marks much of its northern border. From urban Louisville to rural coal mining communities, the Western District covers a diverse cross-section of the Commonwealth.

Judges and Staff of the Western District of Kentucky

The Western District of Kentucky is authorized for five federal district court judgeships. Currently the court has four active judges and one vacancy. The judges are based primarily at the Gene Snyder Courthouse in Louisville which is the main district courthouse.

The current Western District of Kentucky judges are:

  • Chief Judge Greg N. Stivers – Assumed role of chief judge in 2019 after joining court in 2010. Operates from Louisville.
  • Judge Joseph H. McKinley, Jr. – Serves as clerk of court in addition to judicial duties. Joined court in 1998. Chambers in Owensboro.
  • Judge Benjamin Beaton – First appointed in 2014 by President Obama. Based in Paducah.
  • Judge Rebecca Grady Jennings – Appointed in 2021 after serving as Louisville attorney. Chambers are in Louisville.

Complementing the judges are five full-time magistrate judges who are stationed in Louisville, Bowling Green, Paducah and Owensboro. The magistrate judges conduct preliminary criminal hearings and handle pre-trial matters in civil cases on behalf of the district judges.

Day-to-day court administration is under the authority of the clerk of court, Elizabeth A. ” Libby” Smoot. The U.S. Marshal oversees court security including transporting defendants. Since 2021, Gary B. Burman has served as marshal. He heads a staff responsible for protecting the judges, court facilities and the public.

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This team of judges, magistrates and administrators manages the heavy caseload and complex workload of the active Western District Court. Their work handling trials, rulings and court proceedings provides justice across 48 counties.

Courthouses of the Western District of Kentucky

There are four main courthouse facilities located across the Western District of Kentucky where court is held.

The Gene Snyder U.S. Courthouse in downtown Louisville is the main district courthouse and home to the offices of the district judges and clerk. This 17-story building contains six courtrooms plus the district court clerk’s office and probation office. It opened in 2002 replacing an earlier 1901 courthouse.

Three divisional courthouses also host court proceedings:

  • The James F. Gordon Federal Building in Owensboro contains two courtrooms and judge’s chambers. It opened in 1937 and was expanded in 1960s.
  • The Warren County Justice Center in Bowling Green houses one courtroom that holds district court sessions for the Bowling Green Division. The modern complex opened in 2009.
  • The Paducah Division of the district court utilizes the Irvin Cobb Federal Building and Courthouse which contains one courtroom. Opened in 1934, the building is also home to federal agencies.

Additionally, court can be convened in other locations as needed throughout the district. But the four main courthouses with their courtrooms, offices and facilities enable the Western District Court to capably hear cases across its sprawling jurisdiction.

Notable Cases in the Western District of Kentucky

The judges of the Western District of Kentucky have adjudicated many high-profile cases both criminal and civil over the court’s 200-year history.

Famous trials heard in the court include:

  • 1905 – The Western District court found James Hargis, a wealthy and corrupt Kentucky judge, guilty of murder in a sensational trial receiving national press coverage.
  • 1937 – The court presided over the tax evasion trial of infamous gangster George “Machine Gun” Kelly who was ultimately sentenced to prison.
  • 1983 – District judges ruled that the Louisville public schools must desegregate in a pivotal decision that led to busing.
  • 2012 – Iraqi refugees in Kentucky were convicted of attempted use of WMD and plotting to send weapons overseas for terrorist acts.

From Prohibition-era moonshining charges to modern corporate environmental crimes, the Western District court has seen many cases reflecting the issues of the times. Civil rights cases, business disputes, labor struggles and more have all played out in the Western District Court over its long history.

Operations and Administration

The Western District of Kentucky manages a heavy caseload across a wide geographic jurisdiction. Efficient operations and administration are crucial to sustaining the court’s mission.

Annually, around 3,000 new cases of all types are filed in the district. Federal civil suits account for 71% of filings while criminal prosecutions make up 26%. The largest numbers of cases arise in Jefferson County which includes Louisville.

The COVID-19 pandemic impacted court operations with more virtual hearings and electronic case filings implemented. Overall civil filings declined during 2020-2021 before rebounding. Criminal caseloads were less affected.

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The district court conducts trials, hearings and proceedings in Louisville, Owensboro, Bowling Green and Paducah. Trials average around 22 criminal jury trials and 14 civil trials completed annually. Judges also handle many motions and other case events.

For 2021, Congress appropriated $18.8 million to fund the Western District Court’s operations. As a federal entity, it must operate within the annual budget allocated by Congress. Funds pay for judge and staff salaries, juror fees, court security and other operating costs. About 60% of the budget is directed to salaries and benefits.

Efficient court administration and resource management by the chief judge, clerk of court, chief probation officer and U.S. Marshal allow the court to effectively pursue its duty to deliver justice.

Community Outreach and Education

Beyond its courtrooms, the Western District of Kentucky strives to engage with and educate the public about the federal courts.

Outreach efforts include:

  • Free public tours and learning center at the Gene Snyder Courthouse that provide an inside look at the federal court system.
  • Courthouse open houses, courthouse centennial celebrations, and Constitution Day activities.
  • District judges and staff speaking about the courts at local schools, colleges, bar associations and community events.
  • Internships and mentorships to allow law students to gain experience in the federal court environment.
  • Naturalization ceremonies welcoming new American citizens in the district courtrooms.
  • Volunteers and Bar Association members assisting with court programs and legal clinics for the public.

Through these initiatives and with help from the legal community, the Western District Court connects with citizens across its region. This furthers public understanding of the federal courts’ function and strengthens ties with the communities it serves.


For over two centuries, the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Kentucky has served an important role in the federal judiciary. Its jurisdiction reaches across 48 counties encompassing diverse communities from the coal regions to the cities. The court’s docket has run the gamut from violent crimes to complex corporate litigation. Through new facilities, evolutions in structure, and decades of service by judges and staff, the court has adapted to effectively meet its duty to deliver justice. With a rich history and promising future ahead, the Western District Court will continue to shape Kentucky’s legal landscape for years to come.

Frequently Asked Questions

How many judges serve on the Western District Court?

There are currently four active district court judges and five magistrate judges serving the Western District of Kentucky. The court is authorized for five district judges total.

What kinds of cases does the Western District Court handle?

The court handles both civil and criminal matters arising under federal law. This includes cases involving federal statutes, government actions, disputes between citizens of different states, and federal crimes.

Where are the courthouses located?

The main district courthouse is in Louisville. Other courthouses are located in Owensboro, Bowling Green, and Paducah. Court proceedings can occur in other locations as needed.

What are the boundaries of the Western District?

The District spans 48 counties in the western half of Kentucky. It stretches from the Ohio River south to the Tennessee border and from the Mississippi River eastward.

When was the Western District established?

Congress established the Western District of Kentucky in 1801 as one of the first three federal court districts in Kentucky. It has operated continuously since then.

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