Banking Courts in USA

What Are Banking Courts

Banking courts are specialized judicial bodies set up to handle legal cases and disputes related to banks, banking regulation, financial transactions, and bank customers. They have jurisdiction specifically over matters involving banks, bankers, bank regulators, and bank customers. The judges that preside over banking courts have expertise in banking law and industry practices.

History of Banking Courts

Banking courts emerged in the late 19th century along with an expansion in banking regulation and centralization of power over banking policy. States began setting up their own administrative bodies to oversight bank chartering, regulation, and litigation. The first state banking court was established in New York in 1851. At the federal level, bankruptcy courts were created in 1898 to handle the bankruptcy proceedings of national banks.

Over the next hundred plus years, a wider array of banking courts appeared at both state and federal levels. Banking regulation grew increasingly complex, necessitating judicial forums dedicated specifically to banking. Most states now have at least one banking court or banking department within their court system.

Purpose of Banking Courts

The primary purpose of banking courts is to provide efficient resolution of legal cases and disputes related to banking and finance. They enable specialized adjudication of banking matters by judges with expertise in banking law. With an immense volume of bank-related litigation, banking courts help facilitate swifter administration of bank cases compared to general courts. Some of the common matters they handle include:

  • Bank regulatory enforcement actions
  • Customer disputes/complaints against banks
  • Interbank disputes over transactions
  • Bank mergers and acquisition reviews
  • Bank-related bankruptcy proceedings

Banking Court Structure

Types of Banking Courts

There are two main types of banking courts – federal banking courts and state banking courts.

Federal Banking Courts

The most prominent federal banking courts include:

  • U.S. Bankruptcy Courts – Handle bankruptcies; have jurisdiction over insolvent banks
  • U.S. Tax Court – Handles tax litigation/disputes involving banks
  • U.S. Court of Federal Claims – Hears monetary claims against federal government related to federal banking functions

In addition, the Federal Reserve maintains its own semi-judicial administrative courts for enforcement actions against banks related to the Federal Reserve Act.

State Banking Courts

Most U.S. states have established some form of banking court within their state court system. These include:

  • State Banking Departments – Regulatory bodies handling bank litigation
  • Financial Courts – Handle wide array of bank-related litigation
  • Bank Dispute Resolution Tribunals – Resolve bank-customer and interbank disputes

Some states utilize banking judges and mediators rather than formal banking courts. But in all states, there exists infrastructure for litigation of bank-related cases.

Jurisdiction of Banking Courts

Jurisdiction refers to the legal authority of a court to hear certain cases. Banking courts serve banks headquartered in their respective state or territory. For federal banking courts, they have national jurisdiction over banks with federal charters or participating in federal banking systems.

Banking courts handle cases filed by four major entities – regulatory agencies, bank customers, banks themselves, and bankruptcy trustees. Their jurisdiction includes bank regulations, transactions, customer service, credit practices, fiduciary activities, and terms of banking services.

Judges in Banking Courts

Judges that preside over banking courts require specialized qualifications. Most banking judges have education and experience in banking or finance. This includes degrees in related fields or past work in banking law. Banking court judges receive training on banking regulations and emerging banking issues. Higher ranked banking judges are appointed based on demonstrated expertise in banking law and judicial temperament.

Key Banking Court Functions

Below are some of the vital functions and responsibilities held by banking courts:

Bank Regulation Enforcement

Banking courts enforce compliance with banking rules and regulations. Regulatory agencies can file civil charges against banks and bankers that violate regulations like consumer protection laws, fair lending rules, and safety & soundness standards. Banking judges determine if violations occurred and may levy injunctions, fines, and compromise rulings to remedy violations.

Bank Dispute Resolution

An important duty of banking courts is adjudicating disputes that arise between banks and their customers or between banks themselves.

Customer Disputes

Common disputes involve terms of banking services, credit reporting errors, deposit/withdrawal disputes, mortgage servicing issues, and problems with loan approvals or credit access. Customers file claims to obtain damages or contractual remedies from banks. Banking courts review cases and issue rulings determining if banks failed to meet legal or contractual obligations.

Interbank Disputes

Banks can also have disputes with peer banks over transactions, payments, clearing processes, and servicing of loans traded to other banks. Banking courts have the authority to hear such interbank disputes and make determinations on whether contractual duties or banking standards were breached. This helps provide orderly settlement of transaction-based disagreements between banks.

Bankruptcy Proceedings

Banking courts play a pivotal role when banks become insolvent. Under the supervision of federal bankruptcy courts, bankruptcy judges may preside over liquidation or reorganization of failed banks. This protects interests of depositors, creditors, shareholders while dissolving or restoring the bank’s financial viability. Banking court judges have specialized expertise to handle the complex nature of bank bankruptcies and their wider economic impacts.

Bank Merger/Acquisition Review

To ensure sound banking structure and prevent overconcentration in banking sectors, proposed mergers and acquisitions of banks may require review by state or federal banking authorities. Banking courts help conduct reviews assessing potential risks, analyzing economic impacts, and determining if deals protect public interests. Judges either approve deals, block deals, or require certain conditions to remedy concerns over a proposed bank acquisition or merger.

Major Federal Banking Courts

Below are some of the key federal banking courts that handle bank litigation on the national level:

U.S. Bankruptcy Courts

U.S. Bankruptcy Courts oversee insolvency cases for banks with national charters. Spread over 90 judicial districts, bankruptcy judges preside over liquidations or restructurings of failed banks. This protects interests of depositors, creditors, shareholders, and the wider economy. Proceedings aim to maximize recovery of assets where possible.

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U.S. Tax Court

While not exclusively a banking court, the U.S. Tax Court handles a major load of tax litigation between IRS and national banks. Banks utilize Tax Courts to dispute tax bills on financial transactions, services, employee pay, investments and other income. Over 90% of tax cases litigated by banks occur in Tax Court rather than U.S. District Courts. This demonstrates the heavy bank caseloads dwelling in Tax Court.

Tax Litigation Related to Banks

Tax litigation comprises a sizable segment of cases before the U.S. Tax Court. Banks are highly active in utilizing Tax Court to challenge IRS assessments on taxes owed by banks. The complex nature of bank taxation requires judges particularly versed in associated regulations and legal precedent. Tax Court provides specialized adjudication on bank tax matters.

U.S. Court of Federal Claims

The U.S. Court of Federal Claims handles monetary claims against the Federal Government related to federal banking functions. Banks can utilize this court to seek damages stemming from federal banking oversight or loss of bank assets taken over by the FDIC. The Court has handled claims related to actions of the Federal Reserve, FDIC, and Office of the Comptroller.

Bank Claims Against Federal Government

Though the sovereign immunity of federal government limits lawsuits against it, the Court of Federal Claims enables banks to pursue certain claims over federal banking activity that harms banks. Supported claims result in awards reimbursing banks for problematic federal actions tied to bank regulation or insurance. So while not exclusively a banking court, the unique jurisdiction of this Court permits bank restitution from specific federal actions.

State Banking Court Examples

While too numerous to outline comprehensively, below are a few prominent state banking courts across the U.S.

New York State Banking Court

The New York State Banking Court handles bank regulatory enforcement, customer disputes, and banking commerce matters under New York banking laws. With NYC being the epicenter of banking, this Court handles 10s of thousands of bank cases annually. The banking judges are recognized nationally for expertise on key banking issues.

California Financial Court

The California Financial Court deals with bank litigation as part of its jurisdiction over financial sector companies based in California. This includes bank regulatory actions, customer claims against banks, and reorganization of failed California banks. The Court utilizes judges specially assigned to handle bank cases amongst its wider financial industry docket.

Illinois Bank Dispute Tribunal

This tribunal provides mediation and arbitration services to resolve disputes between Illinois banks and their customers. Banks and customers can avoid formal litigation by utilizing Tribunal services focused on achieving mutual agreement between parties in dispute. If no resolution reached, parties still retain right to take their case to court.

Banking Courts vs Regular Courts

Below outlines some of the main advantages banking courts possess over general trial courts and civil court systems:

Expertise in Banking/Finance Issues

The judges that staff banking courts have educational and professional experience in banking, finance, and banking law. This equips them to better grasping complex issues in bank regulations, transactions, banking data, and capital flows. Bank cases demand such precise understanding.

Faster Resolution of Bank Cases

With expertise and focus centered on bank litigation, banking courts avoid the congested dockets plaguing general civil courts. The judicial infrastructure devoted strictly to bank cases allows swifter resolution of matters through both judgments and settlements. This benefits banks, customers and the economic interests that hinge on resolving bank disputes.

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Specialized Banking Court Procedures

Beyond specialized judges, banking courts utilize customized procedures tailored to better facilitate bank case litigation. From differentiated rules on discovery to proprietary methods for introductions of banking evidence, these procedural refinements help streamline adjudication of bank cases.

Criticisms of Banking Court System

Despite their benefits, banking courts also face some common criticisms, including:

Bank Bias in Rulings

Some assert banking courts hold an inherent bias towards banks over consumers or public interests. They argue bank influence and assumptions of banker conduct impermissibly sway some judgments in favor of banks. Calls have been made for stronger impartiality standards in banking court decisions.

Limitations on Discovery

Critics also contend narrowed discovery requirements in some banking courts impede unearthing all relevant facts of cases. Plaintiff consumers argue limitations on records requests and depositions curtail gathering pivotal evidence to support their case arguments. This stacks decks against consumer cases.

Narrow Focus on Banking Interests

A common refrain is that embedded focus on banking dynamics makes their perspectives too isolated from wider impacts. Myriad bank activities spill into broader economy – banking courts must consider those externalities when rendering decisions lest they undermine public welfare.

The Future of Banking Courts

As banking grows more systemized yet complex, banking courts will likely continue adapting to meet regulatory and commerce needs. Possible future developments include:

Potential Expansion into More States

Several states lacking formal banking courts rely solely on general courts to handle bank litigation. Calls exist for specialized banking forums that may STILL materialize in these states as bank case loads increase.

Calls for a National Banking Court

Some want a centralized, national banking court to reduce inconsistencies across state banking court rulings on federal banking matters. Creation of a single entity would also concentrate specialized expertise. But political inertia makes this change unlikely in the near term.

Technology Utilization in Banking Courts

From electronic filing to FinTech mediation tools, banking courts are primed to embrace technologies improving access, transparency, and analytics around banking litigation. Their digital upgrades may inspire modernizations across broader judicial systems over time.


In summary, banking courts provide dedicated judicial infrastructure handling litigation involving banks, regulators, bankers, customers and other banking sector stakeholders. At the core, banking courts offer specialized legal review of bank activities by judges deeply versed in banking law, regulations and associated dynamics. They adjudicate regulatory enforcement, banking transactions, bankruptcies, customer disputes, and structural changes. While not without valid criticism, banking courts resolve a tremendous volume of bank cases that would otherwise paralyze general civil courts. Over the horizon, technological upgrades promise greater legal accessibility, transparency and balance within banking court forums. As banking complexity persists, so too will the need for evolving judicial systems dedicated to banking jurisprudence.


What is the difference between federal and state banking courts?

Federal banking courts like U.S. Bankruptcy Courts have national jurisdiction over banks with federal charters or participating in federal banking systems. State banking courts serve state-chartered banks and enforce state banking regulations, often applying both state and federal banking laws.

How do I file a claim in a banking court?

To file a claim in a banking court, first identify the proper banking court handling the geography and matter type relevant to your case. Rules vary, but claims often require concise statement of allegations, supporting evidence, precise relief demanded and filing fees. Multiple court copies must be provided.

Can banks appeal rulings made by banking courts?

Yes, adverse rulings can be appealed to higher courts. State banking court decisions can be appealed to state appellate courts. Rulings in federal banking courts can be appealed all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court in some instances. Grounds for appeals include legal errors, improper procedures, unsupported conclusions, etc.

Do all states have some kind of banking court?

Nearly all U.S. states maintain some form of banking courts, though they vary between formal dedicated court entities and banking litigation departments as part of larger state courts. A minority of states still route bank litigation through general courts.

Are jury trials allowed in banking courts?

Rules vary substantially by court, but most banking litigation constitutes a civil proceeding tried before judges rather than juries. However, some banking courts permit advisory juries that issue non-binding recommendations to judges. And where claims assert damages under common law, jury rights may come into play for those counts.

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